Woman from a Palmyrene sarcophagus
The portrait of a woman derives from a sarcophagus, found in an unknorn Palmyrene tomb. The surface of the portrait is slightly weathered. Most of her nose is missing, along with the right shoulder, part of the right forearm and the right hand. Three separate inscriptions are sitiuated on the three keys held by the woman. They all carry traces of red pigment.
The woman is wearing a tunic and she is adorned with jewellery. She is holding three keys in her left hand.
Description of object
The woman depicted was probably a part of a large sarcophagus, now detached just below the waist. The surface of the portrait is slightly weathered. Most of her nose is missing, along with the right shoulder, part of the right forearm and the right hand. Three separate inscriptions are sitiuated on the three keys held by the woman. They all carry traces of red pigment.
Her head is slightly lifted in an upward going gaze. She has long, piled-up hair, gathered in the neck. The wavy coiffure has a central parting and a small lock is sitiuated in the middle of her forehead. The hair is indicated by wavy ridges and grooves. Her forehead is flattened and her eyebrows are indicated by wide ridges with incisions and traces of a dark pigment. Her eyelids are heavy and her eyes are large. The iris is indicated by a incised circle, while the pupil is not rendered. The mouth is small, but full and the chin is protruding. Two horizontal grooves are indicated on her neck. The woman is wearing a short-sleeved tunic with a wide v-shaped neckline. The folds of the tunic are indicated by ridges and are further underlined by a belt, creating a big fold just below the belly of the woman. She is also wearing a himation and a fold is visible falling from the left shoulder. Both arms are under proportioned. The right arm is held down the side, while the left arm is flexed and held in front of the torso. Three keys are held with her left hand. The thumb and index finger are extended, while holding on to a fold of garment. The rest of the fingers are flexed. She is wearing earrings consisting of three beads placed vertically on a row. A plain necklace, with a large circular pendant, is sitiuated close to her neck.
Inscription: (key to the left) ΛΝΥ The meaning of these Greek letters are unknown. It has been suggested to be read as the date 451, that is 139/140 C.E., however, this year is not consistent with the dating of the object, which is a century later.(Key in the middle) BT ʽLMʾ
House of eternity
(Key to the right) ΘΗΕΛΙ
Belonging to Helios (Theou Eliou)
CIS: 4490 PAT: 0851
Choice of methods
D. Simonsen (1899), Skulpturer og Indskrifter fra Palmyra, København, 37, no. 43.
P.F.S Poulsen (1921), De palmyrenske skulpturer, Tidsskrift for Konstvetenskab, 87-88, fig. 11.
J.-B. Chabot (1922), Choix d’inscriptions de Palmyre, Paris, 120, no. 34, pl. XXX,3.
H. Ingholt (1928), Studier over Palmyrensk Skulptur, København, 143, PS 458.
S. Ronzevalle (1934), Sîma – Athéna – Némésis, Orientali, 3, 127, pl. VI,1.
D. Mackay (1949), The Jewellery of Palmyra and its Significance, Iraq XI, 167, pl. LII,1
H.J.W. Drivjers (1982), After Life and Symbolism in Palmyrene Religion, in B. Ugo & M.J. Vermaseren (eds.), La soteriologia dei culti orientali nell’impero Romano, Atti del Colloquio Internazionale su la Soteriologia dei culti orientali nell’imperio Romano, Roma, 24-28 Settembre 1979, 711-712, 720.
K. Parlasca (1988), Ikonographische Probleme palmyrenischer Grabreliefs, Damaszener Mitteilunge 3, 217-218, taf. 46d.
F.O. Hvidberg-Hansen & G. Ploug (1993), Palmyra Samlingen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, København, 135-136, no. 89.
G. Ploug (1995), Catalogue of Palmyrene Sculptures, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, 216-218.
F.O. Hvidberg-Hansen (1998), The Palmyrene Inscriptions. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, 77-78, no. 89.
J.B. Yon (2012), Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie, Palmyre, tome XVII, Fascicule 1, Beirut, 417-418, no. 560.
Sokołowski, L. 2014, Portraying the Literacy of Palmyra: The Evidence of Funerary Sculpture and its Interpretation, Ètudes et travaux 27, 281, 399, fig. 14
S. Krag (2015), The secrets of the funerary buildings in Palmyra during the Roman period, in Mortensen, E. and Saxkjær, S.G. (eds.), Revealing and concealing in Antiquity. Textual and Archaeological Approaches to Secrecy, Aarhus, 110-111, fig. 5.
S. Krag (2018), Funerary Representations of Palmyrene Women. From the First Century BC to the Third Century AD, Studies in Classical Archaeology 3, Turnhout, 15-16, 49, 105, 381, cat. no. 804.
- IN 1065
- c. 230-250 C.E.
- Roman Imperial
- Løytved in Syria.
- H: 67.5 cm.; W: 35 cm.; D: 25 cm.